Rabu, 26 Juni 2013

Alexander Graham Bell biography

Nama          : Rendra Pradipta
Kelas           : 4EA15
Npm            : 10209959
Mata Kuliah : Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2





NAME: Alexander Graham Bell
BIRTH DATE: March 031847
DEATH DATE: August 02, 1922
EDUCATION: Edinburgh Royal High School, Edinburgh University, University College in London
PLACE OF BIRTH: Edinburgh, Scotland

PLACE OF DEATH: Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada


Synopsis


         Alexander Graham Bell was born on March 3, 1847, in Edinburgh, Scotland. His education was largely received through numerous experiments in sound and the furthering of his father’s work on Visible Speech for the deaf. Bell worked with Thomas Watson on the design and patent of the first practical telephone. In all, Bell held 18 patents in his name alone and 12 that he shared with collaborators. He died on August 2, 1922, in Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Early Life

Alexander Graham Bell was born Alexander Bell on March 3, 1847, in Edinburgh, Scotland. (He was given the middle name "Graham" when he was 10 years old.) The second son of Alexander Melville Bell and Eliza Grace Symonds Bell, he was named for his paternal grandfather, Alexander Bell. For most of his life, the younger Alexander was known as "Aleck" to family and friends. He had two brothers, Melville James Bell (1845–70) and Edward Charles Bell (1848–67), both of whom died from tuberculosis.
During his youth, Alexander Graham Bell experienced significant influences that would carry into his adult life. One was his hometown of Edinburgh, Scotland, known as the "Athens of the North," for its rich culture of arts and science. Another was his grandfather, Alexander Bell, a well-known professor and teacher of elocution. Alexander's mother also had a profound influence on him, being a proficient pianist despite her deafness. This taught Alexander to look past people's disadvantages and find solutions to help them.
Alexander Graham Bell was homeschooled by his mother, who instilled in him an infinite curiosity about the world around him. He received one year of formal education in a private school and two years at Edinburgh's Royal High School. Though a mediocre student, he displayed an uncommon ability to solve problems. At age 12, while playing with a friend in a grain mill, he noted the slow process of husking the wheat grain. He went home and built a device with rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes that dehusked the wheat. It was his first invention.

Early Attempts to Follow His Passion

Alexander's father, Melville, followed in his father's footsteps, becoming a leading authority on elocution and speech correction. Young Alexander was groomed early to carry on in the family business, but he was ambitious and headstrong, which conflicted with his father's overbearing manner. Then, in 1862, Alexander's grandfather became ill. Seeking to be out of his father's control, Alexander volunteered to care for the elder Bell. The experience profoundly changed him. His grandfather encouraged his interests, and the two developed a close relationship. The experience left him with an appreciation for learning and intellectual pursuits, and transitioned him to manhood.
At 16, Alexander Graham Bell accepted a position at Weston House Academy in Elgin, Scotland, where he taught elocution and music to students, many older than he. At the end of the term, Alexander returned home and joined his father, promoting Melville Bell's technique of Visible Speech, which taught the deaf to align specific phonetic symbols with a particular position of the speech organs (lips, tongue, and palate).
Between 1865 and 1870, there was much change in the Bell household. In 1865, Melville Bell moved the family to London, and Alexander returned to Weston House Academy to teach. In 1867, Alexander's younger brother, Edward, died of tuberculosis. The following year, Alexander rejoined the family and once again became his father's apprentice. He soon assumed full charge of his father's London operations while Melville lectured in America. During this time, Alexander's own health weakened, and in 1870, Alexander's older brother, Melville, Jr., also died of complications from tuberculosis.
On his earlier trip to America, Alexander's father discovered its healthier environment, and after the death of Melville, Jr., decided to move the family there. At first, Alexander resisted the move, for he was beginning to establish himself in London. But realizing his own health was in jeopardy, he relented, and in July 1870, the family settled in Brantford, Ontario, Canada. There, Alexander's health improved, and he set up a workshop to continue his study of the human voice.

Passion for Shaping the Future

In 1871, Melville Bell, Sr. was invited to teach at the Boston School for Deaf Mutes. Because the position conflicted with his lecture tour, he recommended Alexander in his place. The younger Bell quickly accepted. Combining his father's system of Visible Speech and some of his own methods, he achieved remarkable success. Though the school had no funds to hire Bell for another semester, he had fallen in love with the rich intellectual atmosphere of Boston. In 1872, he set out on his own, tutoring deaf children in Boston. His association with two students, George Sanders and Mabel Hubbard, would set him on a new course.
After one of his tutoring sessions with Mabel, Bell shared with her father, Gardiner, his ideas of how several telegraph transmissions might be sent on the same wire if they were transmitted on different harmonic frequencies. Hubbard's interest was piqued. He had been trying to find a way to improve telegraph transmissions, which at the time could carry only one message at a time. Hubbard convinced Thomas Sanders, the father of Bell's other student, George, to help financially back the idea.
Between 1873 and 1874, Alexander Graham Bell spent long days and nights trying to perfect the harmonic telegraph. But his attention became sidetracked with another idea: transmitting the human voice over wires. The diversion frustrated Gardiner Hubbard. He knew another inventor, Elisha Gray, was working on a multiple-signal telegraph. To help Bell refocus his efforts, Hubbard hired Thomas Watson, a skilled electrician. Watson understood how to develop the tools and instruments Bell needed to continue the project. But Watson soon took interest in Bell's idea of voice transmission. Like many inventors before and since, the two men formed a great partnership, with Bell as the ideas man and Watson having the expertise to bring Bell's ideas to reality.
Through 1874 and 1875, Bell and Watson labored on both the harmonic telegraph and a voice transmitting device. Hubbard insisted that the harmonic telegraph take precedence, but when he discovered that the two men had conceptualized the mechanism for voice transmission, he filed a patent. The idea was protected, for the time being, but the device still had to be developed. On March 10, 1876, Bell and Watson were experimenting in their laboratory. Legend has it that Bell knocked over a container of transmitting fluid and shouted, "Mr. Watson, come here. I want to see you!
" The more likely explanation was that Bell heard a noise over the wire and called to his assistant. In any case, Watson heard Bell's voice through the wire and thus received the first telephone call.
To further promote the idea of the telephone, Bell conducted a series of public demonstrations, ever increasing the distance between the two telephones. At the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, in 1876, Bell demonstrated the telephone to the Emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro II, who exclaimed, "My God, it talks!" Other demonstrations followed, each at a greater distance than the last. The Bell Telephone Company was organized on July 9, 1877. With each new success, Alexander Graham Bell was moving out of the shadow of his father.
On July 11, 1877, with his notoriety and financial potential increasing, Alexander Graham Bell married Mabel Hubbard, his former student and the daughter of Gardiner Hubbard, his initial financial backer. Over the course of the next year, Alexander's fame grew internationally and he and Mabel traveled to Europe for more demonstrations. While there, the Bells' first child, Elsie May, was born. Upon their return to the United States, Bell was summoned to Washington D.C. to defend his telephone patent from lawsuits by others claiming they had invented the telephone or had conceived of the idea before Bell.
Over the next 18 years, the Bell Telephone Company faced over 550 court challenges, including several that went to the Supreme Court, but none was successful. Despite these patent battles, the company continued to grow. Between the years 1877 and 1886, the number of people in the United States who owned telephones grew to more than 150,000, and during this time, improvements were made on the device, including the addition of a microphone, invented by Thomas Edison, which eliminated the need to shout into the telephone to be heard.

Pursuing His Passion

Despite his success, Alexander Graham Bell was not a businessman. As he became more affluent, he turned over business matters to Hubbard and turned his attention to a wide range of inventions and intellectual pursuits. In 1880, he established the Volta Laboratory, an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery. There, he developed a metal jacket to assist patients with lung problems, conceptualized the process for producing methane gas from waste material, developed a metal detector to locate bullets in bodies and invented an audiometer to test a person's hearing. He also continued to promote efforts to help the deaf, and in 1890, established the American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf.

Final Years

In the last 30 years of his life, Bell was involved in a wide range of projects and pursued them at a furious pace. He worked on inventions in flight (the tetrahedral kite), scientific publications (Science magazine), and exploration of the earth (National Geographic magazine).
Alexander Graham Bell died peacefully, with his wife by his side, in Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada, on August 2, 1922. The entire telephone system was shut down for one minute in tribute to his life. Within a few months, Mabel also passed away. Alexander Graham Bell's contribution to the modern world and its technologies was enormous.

Sumber:

The Noun Phrase

Nama          : Rendra Pradipta
Kelas           : 4EA15
Npm            : 10209959
Mata Kuliah : Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2

        A noun phrase includes a noun a person, place, or thing and the modifiers which distinguish it. A noun phrase is a phrase which has a noun  as its head word, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase. Noun phrases are very common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently occurring phrase type.

    Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and objects, as predicative expressions, and as the complements of prepositions or post positions. Noun phrases can be embedded inside each other; for instance, the noun phrase some of his constituentscontains the shorter noun phrase his constituents.

What is an article?
Basially, articles are either definite or indefinite. They combine to a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun.
·         The definite article is the.
·         The indefinite article is a / an.
The indefinite article a or an:
The article a / an is used when we don't specify the things or people we are talking about:
·         I met a friend.
·         I work in a factory in New York.
·         I borrowed pencil from a passenger sitting next to me.
The indefinite article a is used before a consonant sound:
·         a dog.
·         a pilot
·         a teacher.
·         a university
NOTE:
Although 'university' starts with the vowel 'u', it is not pronounced as such. It is pronounced as a consonant sound /ju:.niv3:.si.ti/
The indefinite article an is used before a vowel sound:
·         an engineer.
·         an elephant.
·         an athlete
The definite article the:
It's used when the speaker talks about a specific object that both the person speaking and the listener know.
·         The car over there is fast.
·         The president of the United States is giving a speech tonight.

When we speak of something or someone for the first time we use a or an, the next time we repeat that object we use the definite article the.
·         I live in a house. The house is quite old and has four bedrooms.
·         I ate in a Chinese restaurant. The restaurant was very good.
No article:
1. Do not use an article with countries, states, counties or provinces, lakes and mountains except when the country is a collection of states such as "TheUnited States".
·         He lives in Washington near Mount Rainier.
·         They live in Northern British Columbia.
·         They climbed Mount Everest. 

2. we do not normally use an article with plurals and uncountable nouns to talk about things in general.:
·         He writes books.
·         She likes sweets.
·         Do you like jazz music?
·         She ate bread with butter in the morning. 
Countable and uncountable nouns
Using English articles with countable and uncountable nouns may be confusing.
The can be used with uncountable nouns, or the article can be dropped entirely as mentioned above.
1.      "The two countries reached the peace after a long disastrous war" (some specific peace treaty) or "The two countries reachedpeace after a long disastrous war" (any peace).
2.      "He drank the water" (some specific water- for example, the water his wife brought him from the kitchen) or "He drankwater." (any water)

It is unusual to use a/an for uncountable nouns. You can't say "I'd like a milk"
a/an can be used only with countable nouns.
1.      I'd like a piece of cake.
2.      I lent him a book.
3.      I drank a cup of tea.
What are quantifiers?
A quantifier is a word or phrase which is used before a noun to indicate the amount or quantity:
'Some', 'many', 'a lot of' and 'a few' are examples of quantifiers.
Quantifiers can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.
Examples:
There are some books on the desk
He's got only a few dollars.
How much money have you got?
There is a large quantity of fish in this river.
He's got more friends than his sister.
Examples of quantifiers
With Uncountable Nouns
·         much
·         a little/little/very little *
·         a bit (of)
·         a great deal of
·         a large amount of
·         a large quantity of 
With Both
·         all
·         enough
·         more/most
·         less/least
·         no/none
·         not any
·         some
·         any
·         a lot of
·         lots of
·         plenty of
With Countable Nouns
·         many
·         a few/few/very few **
·         a number (of)
·         several
·         a large number of
·         a great number of
·         a majority of
* NOTE
few, very few mean that there is not enough of something.
a few means that there is not a lot of something, but there is enough.
** NOTE
little, very little mean that there is not enough of something.
a little means that there is not a lot of something, but there is enough.

COUNT AND NON-COUNT NOUNS
count noun is something we can count. It has a singular form and a plural form.
ex: one book, three books; a leg, two legs; an apple, six apples;
N.B. A singular count noun must have a Determiner .

non-count noun is something we don’t count. It has no plural form.
We use quantifiers before non-count nouns:
ex: fruit, some fruit; bread, a slice of bread; homework; a lot of homework; information, a little information

The following are non-count nouns:
Abstract nouns:
advice
art
beauty
confidence
courage
crime
education
enjoyment
experience
fun
grammar
happiness
education
hate
health
help
homework
honesty
hospitality
importance
information
intelligence
justice
knowledge
laughter
life
love
luck
music
news
noise
nutrition
patience
patience
pride
progress
slang
time
truth
unemployment
vocabulary
work
Groups with individual parts
cash
change
clothing
equipment
food
fruit
furniture
garbage
hardware
homework
jewelry
junk
junk
luggage
machinery
mail
makeup
money
news
postage
research
scenery
slang
traffic
Things with no definite form:
Liquids
beer
blood
coffee
cream
gasoline
honey
juice
milk
oil
shampoo
soup
tea
water
wine
Gases
air
carbon monoxide
fire
fog
hydrogen
oxygen
pollution
smoke
steam
Solids
butter
cheese
cotton
film
flour
glass
ice
ice cream
meat
powder
salt
soap
sugar
toothpaste
wood
wool
Things that have tiny parts too small to count
corn
dirt
dust
grass
hair
rice
salt
sugar
wheat
Natural phenomena
darkness
dew
electricity
fire
fog
gravity
heat
humidity
light
lightning
rain
snow
sunshine
thunder
weather
wind
Ailments
cancer
cholera
flu
heart disease
malaria
polio
smallpox
strep throat
Academic subjects
art
biology
chemistry
economics
engineering
history
linguistics
literature
mathematics
music
physics
poetry
psychology
science
Languages
Russian, Spanish, French, etc.

Words that can be count and non-count
Food (non-count)
chicken
lamb
liver
fish
Animal or animal part (count)
a chicken
a lamb
a liver
a fish
non-count
wine
food
fruit
meat
education
experience
count (means "a kind of ___")
a wine, wines
a food, foods
a fruit, fruits
a meat, meats
an education
an experience
non-count
glass (the material)

paper (the material)

iron (the metal)
fire (the gas)

time (an abstract idea)
count
a glass (something to put liquid in)
a paper (a report or newspaper)
an iron (for pressing clothes)
a fire (one specific occurrence of fire)
a time, times (a specific occurrence or period)
  
Determiners:
 Articles:
a/an (indefinite)
the (definite)

Demonstratives:
this
that
these
those
Possessives:
my
our
yours
their
her
his
its
Quantifiers:
some
a few
lots of
several
each
every
any
most
many
all
much
no
Sumber : 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noun_phrase
http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-lesson-articles.php
http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-lesson-quantifiers.php

http://faculty.washington.edu/marynell/grammar/noncount.html